Externalities are costs a society has to bear for some person or group enjoying/exercising freedom without responsibilities and/or rights without corresponding duties.

Example: When women are given special reservation (a right) in trains in the form of women only compartments, it confers on them a duty to not travel by general compartments (which should ideally be men only compartments). It is not a legally binding duty but is moral thing to do. I see women travelling in general compartments occupying seats while men have to go standing, all at the same time there are vacant seats in women's compartments which men can not occupy. It reduces efficiency of the system. This reduced efficiency is an externality of women's right without the binding duty corresponding to the right.


Rape is robbery of sexual resource that a woman possesses. It is akin to a man getting robbed of wealth. Both are essentially taking by force what someone else has that one needs. Sex is a resource that women possess and men want.


Use of any means external to oneself for improving life or living conditions, or solving a problem.

The invention of wheel, and the first use of fire by primates are technological developments. Using a stick to relieve one's back of an itch is using technology. Mental stress can be relieved by rest or meditation, but using drugs (means external to oneself) for the same is using technology. Weapons of destruction are technology, as they (if supposedly) improve living conditions or solve a problem,..

Social productivity

Social productivity is a measure of an individual's usefulness to the society. An individual is useful to the society when he lives in a way that helps the society flourish. Such individual is said to be socially productive.

Social productivity can be negative (criminals) or zero (free-riders).


Status is value of a person based on their social productivity or usefulness to the society. More useful the person is to the society, higher his social productivity and worth, and higher the status.

An enterprising man has higher social productivity than a bum. Hence, the former should hold higher status. A family oriented woman is more useful to the society than a corporate woman. Hence, the former should hold higher status. Such value system may not be upheld by the contemporary society, the price of which it may pay.

Women empowerment

The process of social change which allows women to get rid of feminine qualities that make them valuable and useful to the society.

Smart work

Applying short-term/loose fixes to broad level problem mainly keeping in mind personal gain and/or protecting one's ass.

Context: In my limited experience in corporate world I have seen that managers reward people who do "smart work" (in the above sense) over those who do hard work. Because the former help them achieve their productivity targets and KRA's which are the primary qualifying parameters for the next appraisal. Since corporations are limited liability entities, no one really works for the company, much less for adding value to the society (which should be the primary focus of a business entity). In modern times jumping jobs every two years for 30 to 40 percent hike in compensation is quite normal. Who cares what the repercussions of one's policies are a few years down the line when one would have been promoted to another level or moved on to another employer.